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To: Jerry Hobbs, Public Lands for the People

From: James L. Buchal

Date: September 24, 2014

Re: Court of Appeals decision in People v. Rinehart

Yesterday the California Court of Appeal, Third Appellate District, issued a unanimous opinion generally affirming our theory of federal preemption in the mining context. This is a big win for mining community, which has been attempting for roughly five years, through multiple cases in multiple forums, to secure a judicial ruling on the 2009 moratorium and its successors.

What is especially helpful is that the Court gave great weight to our position that particular regulations might become “‘so severe that a particular land use [in this case mining] . . . become[s] commercially impracticable’ (Granite Rock, supra, at p. 587)” (Opinion at 19.) The Court did not adopt the State’s position that only an outright ban of any and all mining might possibly run afoul of federal supremacy, much less its position that there was, in substance, no such thing as federal supremacy in the mining context. Rather, the Court indicated that federal preemption doctrine did provide a potential defense to Mr. Rinehart’s prosecution, but the record was not complete enough in this case to finally resolve the question.

This was because the Superior Court of Plumas County had refused to let Mr. Rinehart present his evidence that the inability to obtain a permit for suction dredging in fact made it “commercially impracticable to exercise [his] . . . mining rights granted to him by the federal government”. (Opinion at 19.) Thus Court of Appeal remanded the case back to Plumas County for a trial on this issue. Mr. Rinehart will now be permitted to testify that mining by hand is not practicable, and we expect he will have an opportunity to present expert testimony as well. A full-blown trial will be more expensive than the initial proceedings.

It is also possible, however, that the State will determine to dismiss the case in what it might call “the interest of justice”. The State might do this because the Court declared that the opinion should not be published, while a second opinion following the trial would be much more likely to be published. The nonpublished nature of the opinion means, in theory, that other litigants in California are forbidden to cite it in court filings. However, we are entirely confident that the Judge overseeing the coordinated cases in San Bernardino County Superior Court will become aware of the decision, and that it will have a positive effect on the ongoing settlement negotiations. Moreover, under Rule 8.1120 of the California Rules of Court, “any person” may request that an unpublished opinion be published. I would recommend that the PLP and as many other miners and mining entities as possible file requests for publication.

We have appreciated the important and generous support we have received from PLP, and hope that PLP will continue support Mr. Rinehart as it becomes necessary to develop a full factual record in the Superior Court of Plumas County. PLP should be proud of its material contributions toward making a real difference for the mining community in California.


James L. Buchal
Murphy & Buchal LLP
3425 SE Yamhill Street, Suite 100
Portland, Oregon 97214
telephone: (503) 227-1011
fax: (503) 573-1939
e-mail: jbuchal@mbllp.com2

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Special Notice Related to the recent ban on Suction Dredging in California:

Public Lands for the People (PLP) is an organization whose purpose is to represent all types of outdoor user groups that are interested in keeping Public and Private lands open for the purpose of Mining, Timber, Grazing and all forms of recreation on a non-discriminatory basis.

As an organization, United Prospectors, Inc. believes in these same goals and would like to pass on a message from the PLP President, Gerald Hobbs, to help in their efforts. You can visit the website for PLP here:

Here is the text he put on their forum.

If you feel you have had harm from the California Legislators passing SB 670 to prohibit suction dredge mining, this is your chance to make it known. PLP is asking those who have been financially harmed by this Bill to please take a few minutes out of your life to write a short letter addressing that harm and send it to

We will see that it gets to our attorney so that we can make the courts and the legislators aware of what SB 670 is really doing to a lot of people. It matters not whether you are an individual miner, businessman or association, if you have had loss to your self or your family because of this moratorium please describe it and let us know. Did you use the extra income for medicines, fuel, food or even suppliment your personal or family income?

I know there are some real horror stories out there because I had calls from individuals who expressed great concern and loss. I will print the letters out and see that they are looked at by the right people.

Thank You

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